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Adhyaya 16 : Daivăsura Sampad - Vibhăga Yoga

  In order to attain unitive knowledge of the Absolute Brahman one must be freed from all kinds of delusions arising out of ignorance. In previous Adhyaya this need was stressed time and again. The 16th Adhyăya shows the way throwing discerning light on two types of human manifestations,; one of divine and the other of demoniac. Discarding demoniac tendencies one has to cultivate divine ones to become worthy of liberation. What is useful and what is harmful for spiritual development, 16th Adhyăya is a major guide.

The Lord brings the discourse from theoretical level to practical level that speaks about human behaviour. After acquiring the discriminatory knowledge in spiritual matter it is very important to get that knowledge reflected in seeker’s behaviour so that the dawn of the unitive experience soon comes close to him.

The Lord straightaway begins describing the virtues that form the wealth of the divine. They are twenty six in number, each one having a distinct flavour.

1) Abhayam : The first and the foremost is fearlessness The divinely born has no fear of death because he experiences the same Ătman everywhere. He has no reason to be afraid of anybody.

2) Sattvasamshuddhi : He has purified his existence by burning the tendencies of rajas and tamas.

3) Dnyăn Yőga vyavasthit : Making his mind steady he is devoted wholeheartedly to spiritual knowledge and carries his duty with detached mind not expecting any fruit.

4) Dăn: His charity is to assist the afflicted by all means, using his body mind and speech, irrespective of his position.

5) Dama : He controls all passions that create hurdles in spiritual development.

6) Yadnya : Surrendering his ego and desires, he performs duties in the spirit of sacrifice.

7) Swadhyăya : He studies spiritual lessons and meditates upon the name of God with intense desire to attain self realisation.

8) Tapa : His penance is to exploit body, mind and senses in the service of the Ătman and to remain always awakened to the reality.

9) Ărjavam : His polite and courteous treatment to all beings is due to his simplicity of heart.

10) Ahimsă : He is harmless in true sense. He being non violent in nature, works for the happiness of the world using his body, mind and speech in a positive way.

11) Satyam : He speaks the truth which is pleasant, beneficial and full of good advice.

12) Akrődha : His mind remains free from anger even in serious provocations.

13) Tyăga : His egoless nature makes him to renounce all worldly desires and fruits.

14) Shănti : His tranquillity is of highest nature where the knowledge, the known and the knower gets fully merged into eternal peace.

15) Apaishunam : He is not simply unmalicious but he corrects other’s mistakes and puts them on right path.

16) Dayă : His compassionate heart is so great that not only he feels sorry over other’s catastrophe and pain but also feels himself happy when others are happy.

17) Alőlupatvam : He is not greedy.

18) Mardavam : He is extremely gentle in his behaviour

19) Hri : He feels ashamed of his identification with the gross body that puts him into the cycle of birth and death.

20) Achăpalam : His determination is in controlling his mind, the life force and the senses. He remains steadfast in all circumstances.

21) Teja : His strength is spiritual and it is exhibited in his facing boldly all difficulties that obstruct his devotion.

22) Kshamă : He forgives and forgets all about it. He is also learned to great extent

23) Dhriti : He courageously endures all troubles that come in the way of his spiritual progress.

24) Shoucham : His purity is from within and without. His outward actions are clean and inward knowledge is pure. Thus he gets purified internally and externally.

25) Adrőha : He is free from hatred, so much so that he always cares for the wellbeing of all.

26) Nătimanită : He abstains from esteeming himself as deserving honour from others although he really deserves it.

Thus these twenty six virtues go into making a divine nature. In contrast to this sublime picture of a godly man, the Lord draws a dark picture of the men of demoniac qualities.

1) Dambha : His hypocrisy makes him to talk about his virtues and goodness though in fact he does not possess them.

2) Darpa : He takes pride in exhibiting his worldly eminence of learning, wealth, status etc.

3) Abhimăn : Out of his arrogance he nourishes vanity

4) Krődha : Once his desires are thwarted he becomes angry. He is also enraged seeing others prosper.

5) Părushya : His behaviour is so insolent as if he vomits fire and breeds cruelty.

6) Adnyăn : The basic defect with such a man is his lack of spiritual knowledge. His ignorance about the true nature of things results into wrong judgements. Pwog Divine virtues lead to liberation and demoniac qualifies bring bondage. The Lord compliments Arjuna for being born in divine nature.

Beings in this world are born in two categories; one divine and the other demoniac. The Lord described the first in detail now turns to the other.

The men of demoniac nature know neither the path of activity nor the path of renunciation. In them, there is no purity, no rightful conduct and no truth also.

They say that this world is unrealistic and it has no support. It is godless and exists without any connection. They think that the world’s only purpose is enjoyment. Firmly adopting this attitude, these men of small intelligence, with their self lost, perform harmful and horrible deeds to ruin this world.

These persons getting under the sway of hypocrisy, conceit and pride, attached to insatiable lust, adopting wrong approach due to delusion work for impure ends.

Remaining in limitless worries till the end of life; drowned in enjoyment, entangled in the net of hundreds of desires and always attached to lust and anger, they are constantly busy in hoarding the wealth by unlawful means for self - gratification.

" I have gained this today and I shall achieve that desire tomorrow, this wealth is mine and that also will be mine. I have killed this enemy to - day and I shall kill others tomorrow. I am the god, I am the enjoyer. I am successful, I am powerful and happy. I am rich and I am born of high family. Who else is there like me? I shall offer sacrifice, I shall give charity, I shall rejoice." Blinded by ignorance the men of demonic nature boast in this fashion.

Getting confused by many thoughts, entangled in the network of delusions, always attached to sensual pleasure, they fall in the dirty hell.

Self - praising and impudent as they are, getting intoxicated by the wealth and status they offer sacrifice for name sake only with hypocrisy and without observing sacred rules.

Imbued with egoism, power, pride, lust and anger they hate me getting critical about my presence in them as well as others.

These envious and cruel malignant creatures of evil characters are always thrown by Me into the wombs of demoniac nature in this material world.

Thus born into demoniac wombs, births after births, these fools fail to reach Me and go on sinking into the lowest state.

After describing the demoniac nature in various ways the Lord suggests the remedy for coming out of it. The Lord continues.

The hell has three gates, lust, anger and greed that lead to the ruin of the Self, therefore, these three should be abandoned.

One who escapes these three gates of darkness, carries out whatever is for the good of his self and reaches the highest goal at last.

But he who discards the rules of the scriptures and act according to his own impulses neither attains perfection nor happiness nor the supreme goal.

The Lord in the end advises Arjuna to accept scriptures as his true guide to decide what to do and v~ nut to do. By knowing the rules taught by scriptures he has to act in this world.

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