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Adhyaya 6 : tma samyama Yga

 lntroduction

Although only knowledge and nothing else is required to attain liberation, the enlightened man should take up action for the good of the people and with a skill of not allowing these actions to create bondage. They are to be carried out without attachment, acquiring the power of mental equipoise. This is how KarmaYga is defined by the Lord and was proved to be superior to the path of renunciation. In the third Adhyaya a mention was made about lust, anger and fear that overpower the senses, mind and intellect of the man and destroy his spiritual as well as material wisdom. Therefore Arjuna was first advised to bring total control over his senses. Now the question arises how to control the senses. The discipline to be practised to reach the state of absorption in Brahman is the main theme of the sixth Adhyaya.

Verses : 1 to 6

Merely discarding actions is not renunciation. One who does not burn sacrificial fire and does not perform any and yoga performance a rituals is not a man avowed to renunciation. Real renunciation what has been called Sannayasa is really yoga lie in discarding the desire for the fruit of action and not the action. Without renouncing future dreams nobody can become yogi. This is how the path of action and path of renunciation get amalgamated. Lord’s preference to the path of detached action is because of its positive side. The path of action has two distinct stages. The first is the climbing state described as ruruksha, one who has just begun to climb and the second is, finally reaching the top, described as Ygrudha, one who has attained union with Brahman. In the first which is the preparatory stage Karma or action becomes the means and at the second when Yga is perfectly achieved than tranquillity becomes the means.

Ygarudha, the person elevated in Yoga, is he who renounces all motivated desires and is engaged neither in sense objects nor in fruilltive action.

Reaching this stage is possible with every one provided he tries to elevate himself by his own efforts and does not engage in degrading his self. Self only is his friend and self alone is his enemy. One who has conquered his lower self by his higher self becomes his own friend and one who can not control his lower self and therefore unable to reach his higher self, his self only remains his enemy.

Here the Lord is emphasising the importance of self-help based on self-freedom . In spiritual journey one has to make his own efforts. By capturing one’s self what rewards one gets? The Lord explains :-

Verses 7 to 9

Once the mind is conquered and tranquillity is attained his higher self is always absorbed in unitive knowledge a trance and he remains undisturbed in heat or cold, in pain or pleasure, in honour or dishonour.

Earth, stone and gold become all alike to the self - realised yogi. His self is satisfied through spiritual and inferential knowledge. He remains undisturbed by the external changes due to his conquering the senses. He is said to be one with Brahman.

He treats, friends, comrades and foes, neutrals and mediators, envious and loving, pious and wicked with equal mind. He is considered great.

Verses 10 to 14

The Lord now explains the technique to be adopted to attain this mental state of equanimity.

To shut outside contacts he should stay alone in a solitary place. Exercising full control over his mind, freeing himself from all desires and possessions he should constantly concentrate his will in to Atman. Establishing his seat firmly on place of purity, neither too high nor too low, first covering with Kusha grass, then with skin then laying a cloth over them, he should sit there fixing his mind on a single point, holding his thoughts and the senses under control and practice this exercise of meditation to purify his self. And he must hold his body, head and neck still and erect fixing his gaze at the tip of his nose not letting the eyes to see elsewhere. Being tranquil in mind, fearless, observing celibacy, holding the mind in check all his thoughts focused on Me, the Lord, he should sit making Him alone his final aim.

 

 

Verses 15 to 19

After describing the posture and mental attitude, the Lord then enumerates the resulting effects of this Yoga practice. The mediator yogi who has conquered his mind, by regularly practising this Yga, reaches the crowning peace inherently present in Me.

The power of mental concentration can be misused in troubling others, therefore the Lord stresses the need of fixing it on God.

This Yga is not for him who either eats too much or does excessive fasting, who either sleeps too much or remains wakeful beyond limits. Moderation in eating, recreating, acting, sleeping and walking makes the, Yoga discipline comfortable by destroying all pains.

Yogi is said to have achieved union with Brahman when the mind coming under control, and freed from all worldly pleasures, stands absorbed in Atman alone. " The flame of a lamp does not waver in windless place." The Lord uses this simile to describe a yogi who has held his mind in check and who is practising meditation on Atman.

Verses 20 to 23

The Lord gives the vivid description of the blissful state of Samadhi, a trance.

The mind brought under control by Yga practice loses its restless nature and becomes calm. In this state, Ygi seeing his Self by the Self experiences the joy of the Self. He enjoys infinite transcendental happiness to be realised and which is beyond the frasp of the senses by the intellect. Staying in this blissful state he is remains un moved. The inmost truth is realised by him. From this position he is not shaken even by the greatest of sorrows. The word Yoga is to be known as breaking the contacts with sorrows and it is to be practised with firm resolution and without getting disheartened.

Verses 24 to 29

How to attain this blissful state of Samadhi is equally important and the Lord in short explains some aspects of intensive concentration of the mind.

One should renounce all desires arising out of selfish motives and control all the senses from all sides by using mental force. Then step by step, with the aid of steady intellect and mind fixed in Atman he should attain tranquillity and need not think of any thing else. The fickle and unsteady mind may wander to whatever direction but he should curb it and bring it back in submission to Atman only. Ygi whose mind is utterly quiet with his passions subdued, sinless as he is, united with Brahman reaches the highest Bliss. Being freed from evil, always meditating on Atman the Ygi easily attains the highest delight that is produced from the contact with Brahman. Ygi who reaches the state of Brahman - consciousness and gaining equal vision sees his self present in all beings and all beings present in his Self.

Verses 30 to 32

Next the Lord brings new awareness to Arjuna when he proclaims:

For him who sees Me every where and every thing in Me, I am nearer lost to him nor he is ever lost to Me. Yogi who is established in Me and worships Me who is present in all creations remains always in Me whatever his present might be."

Of all the ygis he is the perfect one who considers all things alike seeing them as his own self irrespective of his being in happiness or sorrow.

 

Verses 33 to 36

 

Arjuna raises his doubts about the enduring continuity of the Yoga of equal vision because of the restless character of the mind.

" In this Yga of equanimity of mind explained to me by you oh ! Madhusudan , I am unable to see its enduring position due to mind’s restlessness. This mind Oh! Krishna ! is not only restless but very strong, turbulent and stubborn and unlike wind, very difficult to tame. "

The Lord in reply agrees and says that the mind no doubt is restless and is very difficult to control but by regular practice and dispassionate attitude it can be mastered. For a man having no control over his self, to master this Yga is certainly very difficult but he who has control over his self, can easily master it by putting hard efforts and using right means.

Verses 37 to 47

Arjuna raises another doubt and wants to know from the Lord what happens to well-meaning person who earnestly attempts with faith but fails due to insufficient efforts and absence of self-control. His mind runs away from the practice of Yga and he fails to attain perfection. What is his future ?

Arjuna equates him to scattered cloud and asks further, whether fallen from the path of Brahman such a confused man misses both the spiritual as well as wordly success. Does he get destroyed like a torn cloud ? Arjuna requests the Lord to remove his doubt altogether since no one else is capable of tearing this doubt.

In all endeavours failure is a grate deterrent factor. The Lord explains with assurance.

" Oh Arjuna ! such a man is never lost either in this world or the next. Oh dear, he who embarks upon the auspicious work never ends in peril." A man fallen from the practice of Yga reaches the world of blessed ones and stays there for many long years and thereafter is reborn in the home of pure and rich parents or it is possible that he may be born in a family of intelligent ygis. But such a birth in this world is very rare. There he gets back his intelligence and expertise earned in his previous body and from there he again strives harder to attain perfection. His previous practice automatically drags him to progress. Acquiring basic knowledge, even a man of inquisitive quest taking primary steps progresses further than the performers of Vedic rituals. But the ygi getting cleansed of his impurities struggling very hard and advancing gradually to perfection through many births ultimately reaches the supreme goal.

Lord Krishna now advises Arjuna to become a yogi of his special choice. He proclaims :-

"Ygi, the man meditating on Brahman is greater than the ascetics who mortify their bodies, is still greater than the learned. He is also greater than those who do motivated works. Therefore Arjuna should become a Ygi.

But even among all the ygis the Lord considers him the best who fully united with Him; worships him in faith with his heart completely merged into Him.

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